Pregnancy Low Back Pain

Pregnancy is a time of tremendous changes in term of musculoskeletal, physical and emotional condition. It imposes a tremendous stress on the body and yet is a condition of great satisfaction and happiness. During this period, the incidence of back pain is quiet common.

The causes of the increased incidence of Low Back Ache are:

Changes in musculoskeletal system

Stretching of abdominal muscles : Due to the growing fetus as a result of which the muscles are quiet stretched as a result of which the muscle is unable to generate strong contractions and thus decreases the efficiency of contraction.

Hormonal Changes : Due to the increased level of progesterone and relaxin, the tensile strength of ligaments decreases. This also has an effect on the ligaments of low back and pelvis. The joints become hyper mobile due to ligament laxity. This may predispose the patient to joint and ligamentous injury, especially in the weight bearing joints of the back and pelvis.

Changes in posture and balance


It shifted upward and forward because of the enlargement of the uterus and breasts. As a result of the postural compensation occurs. One of the compensation is the increased lumbar lordosis. This can further become habitual, if proper guidance is not provided. This increased lumbar lordosis puts lots of stress on the anterior longitudinal ligament which may lead to pain.

Moreover, there is approximation of facet joints which may become weight bearing thus leads to synovial irritation and inflammation.


With change In Centre of Gravity and increased weight there are compensations to maintain it. The woman starts walking with wide Base of support and increased external rotation at hip. Some activities such as walking, stooping, stair climbing, lifting and reaching. If these activities are repeated then it can be a potential source of low back ache.



This is basically due to the altered posture and the additional bio-mechanical stresses that are discussed above.


Worsen with muscle fatigue after static posture or as the day progresses. These symptoms are usually relieved by change in posture and rest. Pregnant females that are usually fit of have lesser chances to develop this type of backache.


This is due to the ligamentous laxity that leads to increased stresses on the SI joint. This leads to SI joint pain and sometimes inflammation of the joint. This is more common in females as compared to Low Back Pain, even if the female is fit.


Localized to the post aspect of the upper buttock ad is described as stabbing pain deep into the buttocks distal and lateral to lumboscral joint. Pain may radiate up to knee joint. It is aggravated by prolonged sitting, standing or walking; pain when climbing stairs, turning in bel etc. This kind of pain in not relieved by rest. This type of pain can develop even in females with active lifestyle.


The back pain in pregnant females presents a completely different challenge for physiotherapy and thus requires great expertise on the part of the therapist. Thus, the exercises and postural corrections must be done under a proper guidance of a physiotherapist in a physiotherapy clinic.

Stages Of The Cardiac Cycle

Cardiac cycle may be defined as the series of events which include mechanical, electrical, pressure-volumetric changes that occurs in the heart from the beginning of heartbeat to the next. The cardiac cycle can be divided into 2 phases:

  • Period of contraction –referred to as “sysytole”
  • Period of relaxation –referred to as “diastole”

The duration of the whole cardiac cycle is 0.08secs.

During the contractile phase, blood ejected from the heart, while during the relaxation phase, the chambers of the heart gets filled with blood.

Each chamber of the heart goes through the systolic and diastolic phase therefore there is arterial systole and diastole and ventricular systole and diastole.

Stages of the Cardiac Cycle

During late atrial diastole and early ventricular diastole, blood rushes freely into the heart chambers and this accounts for about 80% of ventricular filling.

At this point, the arterio-ventricular valves( bicuspid and tricuspid valves) are opened and the pressure in the ventricles begin to increase as the chamber become filled with blood.

The spontaneous generation of action potential form SA nodal tissues causes the spread of impulses through the atrial muscles causing them to contract. This contraction begins the atrial systolic period.

Atrial systole pumps the remaining 20% of blood into the ventricles before the ventricles contract. When the ventricles are fully filled with blood, the pressure within the chambers of the ventricles exceeds the atrial chambers. This produces the first heart sound which is the characteristic ‘LUB’ sound heard with the aid of stethoscope.

At this junction, the isovolumetric contraction phase begins and the volume of blood in the ventricle when it is fully filled with blood at the end of ventricular diastole is known as end diastolic volume.

During isovolumetric contraction phase, the ventricular muscle shortens and applies pressure on the volume of blood present within the ventricular chamber leading to increase in intraventricular pressure. When the pressure within the ventricles exceeds that within the pulmonary and aortic trunk, the pulmonary and aortic valves open (semilunar valves) and blood is ejected from the ventricles. This begins the ventricular ejection phase.

The ventricular systole begins during isovolumetric contraction phase and the ventricular ejection occurs simultaneously with artrial diastole. The ejection of blood from the heart is initiating rapid due to pressing build up and the initial inertia of blood flow. This however slows down as the pressure within the ventricles begins to fall. When the decline in pressure in the ventricles fall below that in the aortic and pulmonary trunk, the semilunar valves close in order prevent the backflow of blood. This produces the second heart sound which is the characteristic ‘DUB’ sound heard with the aid of a stethoscope,

The dicortic notch is a brief rise in aortic pressure caused by the backflow of blood rebounding to the semilunar valves.

The volume of blood left in the ventricle at the end of ventricular systole is referred to as end systolic volume.

Stroke volume is the volume of blood pump out of each ventricle per beta. It is a difference between the end diastolic volume and end systolic volume

At the end of ventricular systole, isovolumetric ventricular relaxation period begin and pressure within the ventricle begin to drop,.

When the drop in pressure is lower than that in the artrial the AV valves open and blood begins to enter or slow. This begins the ventricular diastole which coincide with midway into artial diastol

One Of The Biggest Mistakes In Rhinoplasty Is Asking For Small Nose

Good communication with your surgeon before rhinoplasty is very essential for result you want. Some thing may seems absolutely clear to you so may you think that is is not necessary to explain them to your surgeon, but that is wrong. Everybody is different so try to explain it as best as you can.

Many people actually make a huge mistake when explaining what they want. They just come to surgeon and say something like “I want to have small nose”. But what is small nose? If we go more into details we can say that nose is like 3D structure. It is has basically 3 dimensions. So when you say “I want small nose” it is not really a good way to start because you can have small nose which will still looks piggy etc. I will explain that. The 4 basic things about noses are: nose lenght, nose projection, nose width and nose rotation but this is something what many people do not realise.

What is nose lenght?

Nose lenght is when you meassure your nose from upper part which is called radix to bottom part which is called nasal base. Often the longer your nose is the shorter is distance between upper lip and bottom part of the nose and opposite. And for example you can have long nose but very small projection. And this is also why many rhinoplasties fail. Because you just assume that wanting a short nose going to be all you need but that may not be a true.

What is nose projection?

Nose projection referes to how far your nose and especially tip stick out of your face. The more it sticks out the more elegant and refined your nose is going to look. Projection also refers to height of your bridge. And also the higher your bridge is then more refined and narrower your nose is going to look. Because it is all optical illusion.

What is width of nose?

And then we have width of nose which refers to width of your nose when looking from front view. And here comes the trick. The less projected your nose is then more wider it is going to look and opposite. So what I am trying to say is that every step influences something else and this is really important to realise when going for rhinoplasty.

And something extra: tip rotation

Last thing I want to mention is tip rotation. It basically refers to rotation of your nose tip. The more rotated your tip is, more nostrils show you are going to have. Typical angle of rotation for men should be between 90-98 degrees. For women it is between 95 and 110 degrees.

So as you see it is all very tricky and you need to think twice before going into surgery. So saying ”I want small nose” is not a wise idea because it does not explain anything and every surgeon can understand it in little bit different way.

10 Tірѕ For Fast Nose Jоb Rесоvеrу

DON’T еxеrсіѕе vіgоrоuѕlу fоr аt lеаѕt twо weeks. Tаkе іt еаѕу and аvоіd ѕtrеnuоuѕ exercise thаt forces уоur bоdу tо соnѕіѕtеntlу аnd аggrеѕѕіvеlу move up, dоwn аnd аrоund. Eаѕе back into еxеrсіѕе during уоur thіrd wееk оf rесоvеrу. Avоіd рlауіng bаѕkеtbаll аnd vоllеуbаll fоr ѕіx wееkѕ, оr аnу оthеr асtіvіtу where you might gеt ѕmасkеd іn thе nose bу a bаll оr аn elbow.

DON’T gо ѕwіmmіng. Yоur nоѕе wіll bе tender аnd swimming—especially dіvіng—wіll mоvе уоur nоѕе аrоund while іt’ѕ still recovering. Pluѕ, chlorine may get іnѕіdе уоur nоѕе, whісh саn ѕtіng. Stay аwау from thе swimming pool for at least three tо fоur wееkѕ following your nоѕе ѕurgеrу.

DON’T blow уоur nоѕе fоr two weeks. Enough ѕаіd hеrе.

DON’T еаt fооdѕ thаt rеԛuіrе hеаvу chewing. Save that ѕtеаk dinner for lаtеr аnd еаt ѕіmрlе, mіld foods уоu can enjoy wіth mіnіmаl еffоrt.

DON’T laugh tоо hаrd оr ѕmіlе tоо wіdе. We knоw thіѕ ѕоundѕ lіkе ѕtеrn advice. Juѕt rеmеmbеr thаt уоur rесоvеrу is temporary аnd the less уоur nоѕе bounces around or ѕtrеtсhеѕ, thе bеttеr.

DON’T bruѕh уоur tееth aggressively. Thіѕ mау sound a bіt ѕіllу, but аggrеѕѕіvе bruѕhіng can cause you to mоvе уоur uрреr-lір more thаn уоu might еxресt, and your upper-lip is connected to your ѕеnѕіtіvе nоѕе. The less уоu move everything аrоund your nоѕе, thе better уоu’ll fееl аnd thе fаѕtеr you’ll heal.

DON’T рull сlоthіng оvеr уоur hеаd. Tеmроrаrіlу аvоіd t-ѕhіrtѕ, sweatshirts аnd ѕwеаtеrѕ whіlе уоur hеаl. Fаvоrіng button-down ѕhіrtѕ whіlе уоur nоѕе hеаlѕ wіll help уоu аvоіd unіntеndеd раіn оr nose mоvеmеnt.

DON’T rеѕt glasses оn your nose up tо fоur wееkѕ fоllоwіng ѕurgеrу. The lеѕѕ weight you рlасе оn уоur nоѕе іn the short tеrm, thе bеttеr thе rеѕultѕ іn thе long tеrm. If you have соntасt lenses, now іѕ a gооd time to use them. If уоu can live wіthоut ѕunglаѕѕеѕ for the ѕhоrt term, we rесоmmеnd уоu dо ѕо. If you аbѕоlutеlу must wеаr еуеglаѕѕеѕ, іt іѕ best tо tape the hard nаѕаl ѕрlіnt оntо thе nоѕе, then ѕеt thе glаѕѕеѕ оn the ѕрlіnt. Otherwise, you may rіѕk реrmаnеntlу pushing іn thе nаѕаl bоnеѕ. Yоu mау also wаnt tо hold glаѕѕеѕ іn your hаndѕ аnd рееr through them wіthоut рlасіng thеm оn уоur nоѕе.

DON’T еxроѕе unрrоtесtеd skin to thе sun fоr thrее mоnthѕ following surgery. Using sunscreen whenever уоu venture оut іntо thе sun is аlwауѕ gооd аdvісе. Following a nose jоb, hоwеvеr, lіmіtіng dаmаgіng sun еxроѕurе is critically іmроrtаnt ѕіnсе tоо muсh ѕun can cause реrmаnеnt dіѕсоlоrаtіоn оn уоur nose.

DON’T ѕmоkе fоr thrее wееkѕ. This аdvісе аррlіеѕ thrее wееkѕ bеfоrе аnd аftеr ѕurgеrу. If you аrе a smoker, thіѕ іѕ a good tіmе to stop!

How Much Does Rhinoplasty Cost

Rhinoplasty cost is generally the the next thing a person investigation upon once you’ve went ahead of time with all the method. Should you encounter difficulty in breathing as well as are not fullfilled with all the physical appearance of onto your nose, you could possibly prefer to go through rhinoplasty to cure your own breathing in difficulty along with help the visual appeal of onto your nose as well.

Facts about the particular parts of rhinoplasty cost

This short article will give you facts about the particular parts of rhinoplasty cost, in addition to just what establishes the quantity of service fees you need to pay. Additionally, you will get some good ideas on the way to reduced the particular rhinoplasty cost.

In the usa, a new rhinoplasty might normally cover anything from $3000 for you to $8000, containing medical, what about anesthesia ? along with center charges. Rhinoplasty plastic surgery is normally completed underneath common what about anesthesia ?, getting involving 1 or 2 a long time. The actual what about anesthesia ? charge is often involving $600 as well as $1,500, along with the service payment among $700 as well as $1,A hundred. The remainder cost will be the doctor’s price, and this is the most costly. Your doctor’s charge is dependent upon their instruction, talent as well as encounter.

When selecting the rhinoplasty doctor, usually do not starting your option about the charges you should spend. Be sure you go with a doctor that is board-certified and possesses each considerable and particular experience of equally rhinoplasty and all sorts of regions of cosmetic plastic cosmetic surgery.

Any highly-qualified board-certified cosmetic surgeon instructions greater service fees as they as well as she’d already went through a certain along with thorough surgery training and also education. Make no mistake – that the well-qualified rhinoplasty physician may suggest the best strategy to your complaint. In this way, a person enhance your probabilities of accomplishment and reduce your current dangers of difficulties.

The actual magnitude of the actual medical procedures furthermore is really a cost variation. Hook surgery change or even decrease concise of your nasal needs a smaller amount operative moment as compared to constricting the particular link or perhaps a total alter of condition. No matter whether an individual undertake open up or even sealed rhinoplasty will likely impact medical some time and cost.

It is possible to declare some as well as most of the rhinoplasty cost if your rhinoplasty process relates to changing your nose passageway to help in inhaling and exhaling, or any other health-related must. Rhinoplasty with regard to strictly plastic motives is just not covered with insurance. Speak to your cosmetic surgeon concerning submitting insurance policy.

A good way to lessen your cost of rhinoplasty is your own rhinoplasty carried out yet another nation. Within the Australia, the rhinoplasty may be just $1200. Indian as well as Thailand will also be well-liked low-cost places for those looking for rhinoplasty.

Whether or not you select a new rhinoplasty physician throughout your home country or perhaps via offshore, inquire if you can meet with ex- sufferers who’ve acquired treatment method through that one doctor. Seek advice concerning how much they will get compensated, the skills they will gotten, and when they may be content with the outcome.

While studying regarding your personal rhinoplasty cost, be sure you request a complete malfunction of charges. This can stop undetectable charges that might result in excessive emotional stress, restricting the healing following the procedure.